Aside

Reflections on the History of National Movement

History: Moderate Phase of Indian National Movement

Assertion: Despite moderate leaders were not able to involve masses in the movement for national progress, their contribution nevertheless remains significant.

Reason: The achievement of any movement must be judged by the tasks the movement set before itself. Moderate phase of Indian national movement was very successful from this perspective. The task of the congress was to cultivate the feelings of national unity and oneness among people separated by caste, creed, language, culture and region. It was also to politically train mobilise and educate masses. One more task was to unify the national leadership and create a conceptual framework of the struggle by solving various questions like, whether the British Raj benevolent. It achieved remarkable success in producing working critique of colonialism and exposing the real nature of British rule. The very fact that the methods and tactics of the moderate leaders were found insufficient shows that the moderate phase had succeeded in raising political consciousness of, atleast its members and in exposing British Raj. It provided unified political platform and definitely succeeded in uniting the political leadership of the Country. Except for a brief split, congress always remained united. It also coordinated the political activities. Thus the significance of moderate leaders can not be underestimated.

 

 

Topic. Indian struggle for indepence.

Fact: Serfoji, king of tanjore and Tipu Sultan were some of the kings who were already assimilating European knowledge and looking for the ways to adopt those practices. They were doing so in 17th century CE.

Conclusion: It shows that India would have embarked upon the path of modernisation even without European conquest. The conquest rather delayed the process of modernisation. Existential crisis would have forced India, just like it forced France and other European countries to modernise and industrialise.

Fact: Ununited Germany was united by Bismark towards the end of Nineteenth century.

Conclusion: India would have got united too, just like it got united several times in past even without the foreigners. The bond of unity would have been stronger because of modern communication and transport devices which were unavailable in the past.

 

Assertion:Indian struggle for independence could remain united despite different and contradicting ideological opinions because mutual tolerance and respect for others viewpoint has always been hallmark of Indian culture.

Reason: Samkhya, Vedanta, Lokayata, Buddhism and Jainism coupled with many shades and beliefs of religious practice have always been prevalent in India including Alavars, Nayanars, Sikhism, Nirguna upasaka, Sufism. History of India is filled with example of peaceful coexistence and mutual symbiosis of these streams of thoughts. All of these has different followers but none of them disrespected the right of the other to maintain a different point of view. It shows that unity in diversity had been hallmark of Indian Culture.

 

Assertion: Despite moderate leaders were not able to involve masses in the movement for national progress, their contribution nevertheless remains significant.

Reason: The achievement of any movement must be judged by the tasks the movement set before itself. Moderate phase of Indian national movement was very successful from this perspective. The task of the congress was to cultivate the feelings of national unity and oneness among people separated by caste, creed, language, culture and region. It was also to politically train mobilise and educate masses. One more task was to unify the national leadership and create a conceptual framework of the struggle by solving various questions like, whether the British Raj benevolent. It achieved remarkable success in producing working critique of colonialism and exposing the real nature of British rule. The very fact that the methods and tactics of the moderate leaders were found insufficient shows that the moderate phase had succeeded in raising political consciousness of, atleast its members and in exposing British Raj. It provided unified political platform and definitely succeeded in uniting the political leadership of the Country. Except for a brief split, congress always remained united. It also coordinated the political activities. Thus the significance of moderate leaders can not be underestimated.

Topic: Not only was economic critique of colonialism, a fundamental aspect of the ideology of indian national movement but also a very potent political weapon.Discuss

Reasons: The economic critique of colonialism started with a fundamental belief in beneficence of masses and culminated in a potent and ruthless weapon of analysis of actions of the British Government. Name of Mr. Dada Bhai Naroji, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade and Mr. Romesh Chand Dutta stand out in this respect. The basis of the economic critique of colonialism was the theory of drain of of wealth. The theory argued that taxes from india are used to pay the secretary, the britishers, the pensions of the employees of the company,and the capitalists. They realised that colonialism was one of the main reason for under development and poverty in India. The came to conclusion that the reason for economic underdevelopment of India was political subjugation by the British. Their main concern was economic development of India, which , according to them, should only be brought out by Indian Capital. Foreign capital , according to them, instead of improving the lot of India and its people would tighten the stranglehold of Foreign power over India. Thus they sought protective tariffs and indianisation of the civil services. They countered arguments of british that the increasing foreign trade and construction of railways is a sign of the development of India. They argued that it is but a symbol of subjugation and penetration of british rule.

This economic doctrine had the advantage of not only being thorough but also of being easily understood by the masses and the peasants.

Afterall, the drain of wealth by Zamindar and moneylenders and the lot was they experienced in their daily life. This ease of understanding of the doctrine and its pervasiveness made it a potent political tool. Not only was this doctrine subsequently used widely for analysis of actions of colonialist government but also made Indian National Movement as Hard Core anti imperialist. The movement never flinched from its anti imperialist stand. Secondly this brilliant analysis of the mechanisms of the working of the capitalism along with realisation of the contradiction of interest between India and the colonialist regime became the foundation stone of Indian Nationalism.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s